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UninitializedObject.h
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1//===----- UninitializedObject.h ---------------------------------*- C++ -*-==//
2//
3// Part of the LLVM Project, under the Apache License v2.0 with LLVM Exceptions.
4// See https://llvm.org/LICENSE.txt for license information.
5// SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0 WITH LLVM-exception
6//
7//===----------------------------------------------------------------------===//
8//
9// This file defines helper classes for UninitializedObjectChecker and
10// documentation about the logic of it.
11//
12// The checker reports uninitialized fields in objects created after a
13// constructor call.
14//
15// This checker has several options:
16// - "Pedantic" (boolean). If its not set or is set to false, the checker
17// won't emit warnings for objects that don't have at least one initialized
18// field. This may be set with
19//
20// `-analyzer-config optin.cplusplus.UninitializedObject:Pedantic=true`.
21//
22// - "NotesAsWarnings" (boolean). If set to true, the checker will emit a
23// warning for each uninitialized field, as opposed to emitting one warning
24// per constructor call, and listing the uninitialized fields that belongs
25// to it in notes. Defaults to false.
26//
27// `-analyzer-config \
28// optin.cplusplus.UninitializedObject:NotesAsWarnings=true`.
29//
30// - "CheckPointeeInitialization" (boolean). If set to false, the checker will
31// not analyze the pointee of pointer/reference fields, and will only check
32// whether the object itself is initialized. Defaults to false.
33//
34// `-analyzer-config \
35// optin.cplusplus.UninitializedObject:CheckPointeeInitialization=true`.
36//
37// TODO: With some clever heuristics, some pointers should be dereferenced
38// by default. For example, if the pointee is constructed within the
39// constructor call, it's reasonable to say that no external object
40// references it, and we wouldn't generate multiple report on the same
41// pointee.
42//
43// - "IgnoreRecordsWithField" (string). If supplied, the checker will not
44// analyze structures that have a field with a name or type name that
45// matches the given pattern. Defaults to "".
46//
47// `-analyzer-config \
48// optin.cplusplus.UninitializedObject:IgnoreRecordsWithField="[Tt]ag|[Kk]ind"`.
49//
50// - "IgnoreGuardedFields" (boolean). If set to true, the checker will analyze
51// _syntactically_ whether the found uninitialized object is used without a
52// preceding assert call. Defaults to false.
53//
54// `-analyzer-config \
55// optin.cplusplus.UninitializedObject:IgnoreGuardedFields=true`.
56//
57// Most of the following methods as well as the checker itself is defined in
58// UninitializedObjectChecker.cpp.
59//
60// Some methods are implemented in UninitializedPointee.cpp, to reduce the
61// complexity of the main checker file.
62//
63//===----------------------------------------------------------------------===//
64
65#ifndef LLVM_CLANG_STATICANALYZER_UNINITIALIZEDOBJECT_H
66#define LLVM_CLANG_STATICANALYZER_UNINITIALIZEDOBJECT_H
67
69
70namespace clang {
71namespace ento {
72
74 bool IsPedantic = false;
78 bool IgnoreGuardedFields = false;
79};
80
81/// A lightweight polymorphic wrapper around FieldRegion *. We'll use this
82/// interface to store addinitional information about fields. As described
83/// later, a list of these objects (i.e. "fieldchain") will be constructed and
84/// used for printing note messages should an uninitialized value be found.
85class FieldNode {
86protected:
88
89 /// FieldNodes are never meant to be created on the heap, see
90 /// FindUninitializedFields::addFieldToUninits().
91 /* non-virtual */ ~FieldNode() = default;
92
93public:
95
96 // We'll delete all of these special member functions to force the users of
97 // this interface to only store references to FieldNode objects in containers.
98 FieldNode() = delete;
99 FieldNode(const FieldNode &) = delete;
100 FieldNode(FieldNode &&) = delete;
101 FieldNode &operator=(const FieldNode &) = delete;
102 FieldNode &operator=(const FieldNode &&) = delete;
103
104 void Profile(llvm::FoldingSetNodeID &ID) const { ID.AddPointer(this); }
105
106 /// Helper method for uniqueing.
107 bool isSameRegion(const FieldRegion *OtherFR) const {
108 // Special FieldNode descendants may wrap nullpointers (for example if they
109 // describe a special relationship between two elements of the fieldchain)
110 // -- we wouldn't like to unique these objects.
111 if (FR == nullptr)
112 return false;
113
114 return FR == OtherFR;
115 }
116
117 const FieldRegion *getRegion() const { return FR; }
118 const FieldDecl *getDecl() const {
119 assert(FR);
120 return FR->getDecl();
121 }
122
123 // When a fieldchain is printed, it will have the following format (without
124 // newline, indices are in order of insertion, from 1 to n):
125 //
126 // <note_message_n>'<prefix_n><prefix_n-1>...<prefix_1>
127 // this-><node_1><separator_1><node_2><separator_2>...<node_n>'
128
129 /// If this is the last element of the fieldchain, this method will print the
130 /// note message associated with it.
131 /// The note message should state something like "uninitialized field" or
132 /// "uninitialized pointee" etc.
133 virtual void printNoteMsg(llvm::raw_ostream &Out) const = 0;
134
135 /// Print any prefixes before the fieldchain. Could contain casts, etc.
136 virtual void printPrefix(llvm::raw_ostream &Out) const = 0;
137
138 /// Print the node. Should contain the name of the field stored in FR.
139 virtual void printNode(llvm::raw_ostream &Out) const = 0;
140
141 /// Print the separator. For example, fields may be separated with '.' or
142 /// "->".
143 virtual void printSeparator(llvm::raw_ostream &Out) const = 0;
144
145 virtual bool isBase() const { return false; }
146};
147
148/// Returns with Field's name. This is a helper function to get the correct name
149/// even if Field is a captured lambda variable.
150std::string getVariableName(const FieldDecl *Field);
151
152/// Represents a field chain. A field chain is a list of fields where the first
153/// element of the chain is the object under checking (not stored), and every
154/// other element is a field, and the element that precedes it is the object
155/// that contains it.
156///
157/// Note that this class is immutable (essentially a wrapper around an
158/// ImmutableList), new FieldChainInfo objects may be created by member
159/// functions such as add() and replaceHead().
161public:
162 using FieldChain = llvm::ImmutableList<const FieldNode &>;
163
164private:
165 FieldChain::Factory &ChainFactory;
166 FieldChain Chain;
167
168 FieldChainInfo(FieldChain::Factory &F, FieldChain NewChain)
169 : FieldChainInfo(F) {
170 Chain = NewChain;
171 }
172
173public:
174 FieldChainInfo() = delete;
175 FieldChainInfo(FieldChain::Factory &F) : ChainFactory(F) {}
177
178 /// Constructs a new FieldChainInfo object with \p FN appended.
179 template <class FieldNodeT> FieldChainInfo add(const FieldNodeT &FN);
180
181 /// Constructs a new FieldChainInfo object with \p FN as the new head of the
182 /// list.
183 template <class FieldNodeT> FieldChainInfo replaceHead(const FieldNodeT &FN);
184
185 bool contains(const FieldRegion *FR) const;
186 bool isEmpty() const { return Chain.isEmpty(); }
187
188 const FieldNode &getHead() const { return Chain.getHead(); }
189 const FieldRegion *getUninitRegion() const { return getHead().getRegion(); }
190
191 void printNoteMsg(llvm::raw_ostream &Out) const;
192};
193
194using UninitFieldMap = std::map<const FieldRegion *, llvm::SmallString<50>>;
195
196/// Searches for and stores uninitialized fields in a non-union object.
198 ProgramStateRef State;
199 const TypedValueRegion *const ObjectR;
200
201 const UninitObjCheckerOptions Opts;
202 bool IsAnyFieldInitialized = false;
203
204 FieldChainInfo::FieldChain::Factory ChainFactory;
205
206 /// A map for assigning uninitialized regions to note messages. For example,
207 ///
208 /// struct A {
209 /// int x;
210 /// };
211 ///
212 /// A a;
213 ///
214 /// After analyzing `a`, the map will contain a pair for `a.x`'s region and
215 /// the note message "uninitialized field 'this->x'.
216 UninitFieldMap UninitFields;
217
218public:
219 /// Constructs the FindUninitializedField object, searches for and stores
220 /// uninitialized fields in R.
222 const TypedValueRegion *const R,
223 const UninitObjCheckerOptions &Opts);
224
225 /// Returns with the modified state and a map of (uninitialized region,
226 /// note message) pairs.
227 std::pair<ProgramStateRef, const UninitFieldMap &> getResults() {
228 return {State, UninitFields};
229 }
230
231 /// Returns whether the analyzed region contains at least one initialized
232 /// field. Note that this includes subfields as well, not just direct ones,
233 /// and will return false if an uninitialized pointee is found with
234 /// CheckPointeeInitialization enabled.
235 bool isAnyFieldInitialized() { return IsAnyFieldInitialized; }
236
237private:
238 // For the purposes of this checker, we'll regard the analyzed region as a
239 // directed tree, where
240 // * the root is the object under checking
241 // * every node is an object that is
242 // - a union
243 // - a non-union record
244 // - dereferenceable (see isDereferencableType())
245 // - an array
246 // - of a primitive type (see isPrimitiveType())
247 // * the parent of each node is the object that contains it
248 // * every leaf is an array, a primitive object, a nullptr or an undefined
249 // pointer.
250 //
251 // Example:
252 //
253 // struct A {
254 // struct B {
255 // int x, y = 0;
256 // };
257 // B b;
258 // int *iptr = new int;
259 // B* bptr;
260 //
261 // A() {}
262 // };
263 //
264 // The directed tree:
265 //
266 // ->x
267 // /
268 // ->b--->y
269 // /
270 // A-->iptr->(int value)
271 // \
272 // ->bptr
273 //
274 // From this we'll construct a vector of fieldchains, where each fieldchain
275 // represents an uninitialized field. An uninitialized field may be a
276 // primitive object, a pointer, a pointee or a union without a single
277 // initialized field.
278 // In the above example, for the default constructor call we'll end up with
279 // these fieldchains:
280 //
281 // this->b.x
282 // this->iptr (pointee uninit)
283 // this->bptr (pointer uninit)
284 //
285 // We'll traverse each node of the above graph with the appropriate one of
286 // these methods:
287
288 /// Checks the region of a union object, and returns true if no field is
289 /// initialized within the region.
290 bool isUnionUninit(const TypedValueRegion *R);
291
292 /// Checks a region of a non-union object, and returns true if an
293 /// uninitialized field is found within the region.
294 bool isNonUnionUninit(const TypedValueRegion *R, FieldChainInfo LocalChain);
295
296 /// Checks a region of a pointer or reference object, and returns true if the
297 /// ptr/ref object itself or any field within the pointee's region is
298 /// uninitialized.
299 bool isDereferencableUninit(const FieldRegion *FR, FieldChainInfo LocalChain);
300
301 /// Returns true if the value of a primitive object is uninitialized.
302 bool isPrimitiveUninit(SVal V);
303
304 // Note that we don't have a method for arrays -- the elements of an array are
305 // often left uninitialized intentionally even when it is of a C++ record
306 // type, so we'll assume that an array is always initialized.
307 // TODO: Add a support for nonloc::LocAsInteger.
308
309 /// Processes LocalChain and attempts to insert it into UninitFields. Returns
310 /// true on success. Also adds the head of the list and \p PointeeR (if
311 /// supplied) to the GDM as already analyzed objects.
312 ///
313 /// Since this class analyzes regions with recursion, we'll only store
314 /// references to temporary FieldNode objects created on the stack. This means
315 /// that after analyzing a leaf of the directed tree described above, the
316 /// elements LocalChain references will be destructed, so we can't store it
317 /// directly.
318 bool addFieldToUninits(FieldChainInfo LocalChain,
319 const MemRegion *PointeeR = nullptr);
320};
321
322/// Returns true if T is a primitive type. An object of a primitive type only
323/// needs to be analyzed as much as checking whether their value is undefined.
324inline bool isPrimitiveType(const QualType &T) {
325 return T->isBuiltinType() || T->isEnumeralType() ||
326 T->isFunctionType() || T->isAtomicType() ||
327 T->isVectorType() || T->isScalarType();
328}
329
330inline bool isDereferencableType(const QualType &T) {
331 return T->isAnyPointerType() || T->isReferenceType();
332}
333
334// Template method definitions.
335
336template <class FieldNodeT>
337inline FieldChainInfo FieldChainInfo::add(const FieldNodeT &FN) {
338 assert(!contains(FN.getRegion()) &&
339 "Can't add a field that is already a part of the "
340 "fieldchain! Is this a cyclic reference?");
341
342 FieldChainInfo NewChain = *this;
343 NewChain.Chain = ChainFactory.add(FN, Chain);
344 return NewChain;
345}
346
347template <class FieldNodeT>
348inline FieldChainInfo FieldChainInfo::replaceHead(const FieldNodeT &FN) {
349 FieldChainInfo NewChain(ChainFactory, Chain.getTail());
350 return NewChain.add(FN);
351}
352
353} // end of namespace ento
354} // end of namespace clang
355
356#endif // LLVM_CLANG_STATICANALYZER_UNINITIALIZEDOBJECT_H
#define V(N, I)
Definition: ASTContext.h:3300
static char ID
Definition: Arena.cpp:183
Represents a member of a struct/union/class.
Definition: Decl.h:3059
A (possibly-)qualified type.
Definition: Type.h:940
bool isReferenceType() const
Definition: Type.h:7640
bool isEnumeralType() const
Definition: Type.h:7726
bool isScalarType() const
Definition: Type.h:8024
bool isBuiltinType() const
Helper methods to distinguish type categories.
Definition: Type.h:7718
bool isAtomicType() const
Definition: Type.h:7777
bool isFunctionType() const
Definition: Type.h:7624
bool isVectorType() const
Definition: Type.h:7734
bool isAnyPointerType() const
Definition: Type.h:7632
Represents a field chain.
bool contains(const FieldRegion *FR) const
llvm::ImmutableList< const FieldNode & > FieldChain
FieldChainInfo(FieldChain::Factory &F)
const FieldNode & getHead() const
const FieldRegion * getUninitRegion() const
FieldChainInfo replaceHead(const FieldNodeT &FN)
Constructs a new FieldChainInfo object with FN as the new head of the list.
FieldChainInfo(const FieldChainInfo &Other)=default
FieldChainInfo add(const FieldNodeT &FN)
Constructs a new FieldChainInfo object with FN appended.
void printNoteMsg(llvm::raw_ostream &Out) const
A lightweight polymorphic wrapper around FieldRegion *.
virtual bool isBase() const
FieldNode(const FieldRegion *FR)
void Profile(llvm::FoldingSetNodeID &ID) const
virtual void printSeparator(llvm::raw_ostream &Out) const =0
Print the separator.
bool isSameRegion(const FieldRegion *OtherFR) const
Helper method for uniqueing.
const FieldRegion * getRegion() const
const FieldRegion * FR
virtual void printPrefix(llvm::raw_ostream &Out) const =0
Print any prefixes before the fieldchain. Could contain casts, etc.
virtual void printNoteMsg(llvm::raw_ostream &Out) const =0
If this is the last element of the fieldchain, this method will print the note message associated wit...
FieldNode & operator=(const FieldNode &)=delete
FieldNode & operator=(const FieldNode &&)=delete
FieldNode(const FieldNode &)=delete
FieldNode(FieldNode &&)=delete
const FieldDecl * getDecl() const
~FieldNode()=default
FieldNodes are never meant to be created on the heap, see FindUninitializedFields::addFieldToUninits(...
virtual void printNode(llvm::raw_ostream &Out) const =0
Print the node. Should contain the name of the field stored in FR.
LLVM_ATTRIBUTE_RETURNS_NONNULL const FieldDecl * getDecl() const override
Definition: MemRegion.h:1120
Searches for and stores uninitialized fields in a non-union object.
std::pair< ProgramStateRef, const UninitFieldMap & > getResults()
Returns with the modified state and a map of (uninitialized region, note message) pairs.
bool isAnyFieldInitialized()
Returns whether the analyzed region contains at least one initialized field.
MemRegion - The root abstract class for all memory regions.
Definition: MemRegion.h:96
SVal - This represents a symbolic expression, which can be either an L-value or an R-value.
Definition: SVals.h:55
TypedValueRegion - An abstract class representing regions having a typed value.
Definition: MemRegion.h:530
std::string getVariableName(const FieldDecl *Field)
Returns with Field's name.
bool isPrimitiveType(const QualType &T)
Returns true if T is a primitive type.
bool isDereferencableType(const QualType &T)
std::map< const FieldRegion *, llvm::SmallString< 50 > > UninitFieldMap
The JSON file list parser is used to communicate input to InstallAPI.
const FunctionProtoType * T
@ Other
Other implicit parameter.