clang  8.0.0svn
StackAddrEscapeChecker.cpp
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1 //=== StackAddrEscapeChecker.cpp ----------------------------------*- C++ -*--//
2 //
3 // The LLVM Compiler Infrastructure
4 //
5 // This file is distributed under the University of Illinois Open Source
6 // License. See LICENSE.TXT for details.
7 //
8 //===----------------------------------------------------------------------===//
9 //
10 // This file defines stack address leak checker, which checks if an invalid
11 // stack address is stored into a global or heap location. See CERT DCL30-C.
12 //
13 //===----------------------------------------------------------------------===//
14 
15 #include "ClangSACheckers.h"
16 #include "clang/AST/ExprCXX.h"
24 #include "llvm/ADT/SmallString.h"
25 #include "llvm/Support/raw_ostream.h"
26 using namespace clang;
27 using namespace ento;
28 
29 namespace {
30 class StackAddrEscapeChecker
31  : public Checker<check::PreCall, check::PreStmt<ReturnStmt>,
32  check::EndFunction> {
33  mutable IdentifierInfo *dispatch_semaphore_tII;
34  mutable std::unique_ptr<BuiltinBug> BT_stackleak;
35  mutable std::unique_ptr<BuiltinBug> BT_returnstack;
36  mutable std::unique_ptr<BuiltinBug> BT_capturedstackasync;
37  mutable std::unique_ptr<BuiltinBug> BT_capturedstackret;
38 
39 public:
40  enum CheckKind {
41  CK_StackAddrEscapeChecker,
42  CK_StackAddrAsyncEscapeChecker,
43  CK_NumCheckKinds
44  };
45 
46  DefaultBool ChecksEnabled[CK_NumCheckKinds];
47 
48  void checkPreCall(const CallEvent &Call, CheckerContext &C) const;
49  void checkPreStmt(const ReturnStmt *RS, CheckerContext &C) const;
50  void checkEndFunction(const ReturnStmt *RS, CheckerContext &Ctx) const;
51 
52 private:
53  void checkReturnedBlockCaptures(const BlockDataRegion &B,
54  CheckerContext &C) const;
55  void checkAsyncExecutedBlockCaptures(const BlockDataRegion &B,
56  CheckerContext &C) const;
57  void EmitStackError(CheckerContext &C, const MemRegion *R,
58  const Expr *RetE) const;
59  bool isSemaphoreCaptured(const BlockDecl &B) const;
60  static SourceRange genName(raw_ostream &os, const MemRegion *R,
61  ASTContext &Ctx);
63  getCapturedStackRegions(const BlockDataRegion &B, CheckerContext &C);
64  static bool isArcManagedBlock(const MemRegion *R, CheckerContext &C);
65  static bool isNotInCurrentFrame(const MemRegion *R, CheckerContext &C);
66 };
67 } // namespace
68 
69 SourceRange StackAddrEscapeChecker::genName(raw_ostream &os, const MemRegion *R,
70  ASTContext &Ctx) {
71  // Get the base region, stripping away fields and elements.
72  R = R->getBaseRegion();
74  SourceRange range;
75  os << "Address of ";
76 
77  // Check if the region is a compound literal.
78  if (const auto *CR = dyn_cast<CompoundLiteralRegion>(R)) {
79  const CompoundLiteralExpr *CL = CR->getLiteralExpr();
80  os << "stack memory associated with a compound literal "
81  "declared on line "
82  << SM.getExpansionLineNumber(CL->getBeginLoc()) << " returned to caller";
83  range = CL->getSourceRange();
84  } else if (const auto *AR = dyn_cast<AllocaRegion>(R)) {
85  const Expr *ARE = AR->getExpr();
86  SourceLocation L = ARE->getBeginLoc();
87  range = ARE->getSourceRange();
88  os << "stack memory allocated by call to alloca() on line "
89  << SM.getExpansionLineNumber(L);
90  } else if (const auto *BR = dyn_cast<BlockDataRegion>(R)) {
91  const BlockDecl *BD = BR->getCodeRegion()->getDecl();
92  SourceLocation L = BD->getBeginLoc();
93  range = BD->getSourceRange();
94  os << "stack-allocated block declared on line "
95  << SM.getExpansionLineNumber(L);
96  } else if (const auto *VR = dyn_cast<VarRegion>(R)) {
97  os << "stack memory associated with local variable '" << VR->getString()
98  << '\'';
99  range = VR->getDecl()->getSourceRange();
100  } else if (const auto *TOR = dyn_cast<CXXTempObjectRegion>(R)) {
101  QualType Ty = TOR->getValueType().getLocalUnqualifiedType();
102  os << "stack memory associated with temporary object of type '";
103  Ty.print(os, Ctx.getPrintingPolicy());
104  os << "'";
105  range = TOR->getExpr()->getSourceRange();
106  } else {
107  llvm_unreachable("Invalid region in ReturnStackAddressChecker.");
108  }
109 
110  return range;
111 }
112 
113 bool StackAddrEscapeChecker::isArcManagedBlock(const MemRegion *R,
114  CheckerContext &C) {
115  assert(R && "MemRegion should not be null");
116  return C.getASTContext().getLangOpts().ObjCAutoRefCount &&
117  isa<BlockDataRegion>(R);
118 }
119 
120 bool StackAddrEscapeChecker::isNotInCurrentFrame(const MemRegion *R,
121  CheckerContext &C) {
122  const StackSpaceRegion *S = cast<StackSpaceRegion>(R->getMemorySpace());
123  return S->getStackFrame() != C.getStackFrame();
124 }
125 
126 bool StackAddrEscapeChecker::isSemaphoreCaptured(const BlockDecl &B) const {
127  if (!dispatch_semaphore_tII)
128  dispatch_semaphore_tII = &B.getASTContext().Idents.get("dispatch_semaphore_t");
129  for (const auto &C : B.captures()) {
130  const auto *T = C.getVariable()->getType()->getAs<TypedefType>();
131  if (T && T->getDecl()->getIdentifier() == dispatch_semaphore_tII)
132  return true;
133  }
134  return false;
135 }
136 
138 StackAddrEscapeChecker::getCapturedStackRegions(const BlockDataRegion &B,
139  CheckerContext &C) {
141  BlockDataRegion::referenced_vars_iterator I = B.referenced_vars_begin();
142  BlockDataRegion::referenced_vars_iterator E = B.referenced_vars_end();
143  for (; I != E; ++I) {
144  SVal Val = C.getState()->getSVal(I.getCapturedRegion());
145  const MemRegion *Region = Val.getAsRegion();
146  if (Region && isa<StackSpaceRegion>(Region->getMemorySpace()))
147  Regions.push_back(Region);
148  }
149  return Regions;
150 }
151 
152 void StackAddrEscapeChecker::EmitStackError(CheckerContext &C,
153  const MemRegion *R,
154  const Expr *RetE) const {
155  ExplodedNode *N = C.generateNonFatalErrorNode();
156  if (!N)
157  return;
158  if (!BT_returnstack)
159  BT_returnstack = llvm::make_unique<BuiltinBug>(
160  this, "Return of address to stack-allocated memory");
161  // Generate a report for this bug.
162  SmallString<128> buf;
163  llvm::raw_svector_ostream os(buf);
164  SourceRange range = genName(os, R, C.getASTContext());
165  os << " returned to caller";
166  auto report = llvm::make_unique<BugReport>(*BT_returnstack, os.str(), N);
167  report->addRange(RetE->getSourceRange());
168  if (range.isValid())
169  report->addRange(range);
170  C.emitReport(std::move(report));
171 }
172 
173 void StackAddrEscapeChecker::checkAsyncExecutedBlockCaptures(
174  const BlockDataRegion &B, CheckerContext &C) const {
175  // There is a not-too-uncommon idiom
176  // where a block passed to dispatch_async captures a semaphore
177  // and then the thread (which called dispatch_async) is blocked on waiting
178  // for the completion of the execution of the block
179  // via dispatch_semaphore_wait. To avoid false-positives (for now)
180  // we ignore all the blocks which have captured
181  // a variable of the type "dispatch_semaphore_t".
182  if (isSemaphoreCaptured(*B.getDecl()))
183  return;
184  for (const MemRegion *Region : getCapturedStackRegions(B, C)) {
185  // The block passed to dispatch_async may capture another block
186  // created on the stack. However, there is no leak in this situaton,
187  // no matter if ARC or no ARC is enabled:
188  // dispatch_async copies the passed "outer" block (via Block_copy)
189  // and if the block has captured another "inner" block,
190  // the "inner" block will be copied as well.
191  if (isa<BlockDataRegion>(Region))
192  continue;
193  ExplodedNode *N = C.generateNonFatalErrorNode();
194  if (!N)
195  continue;
196  if (!BT_capturedstackasync)
197  BT_capturedstackasync = llvm::make_unique<BuiltinBug>(
198  this, "Address of stack-allocated memory is captured");
199  SmallString<128> Buf;
200  llvm::raw_svector_ostream Out(Buf);
201  SourceRange Range = genName(Out, Region, C.getASTContext());
202  Out << " is captured by an asynchronously-executed block";
203  auto Report =
204  llvm::make_unique<BugReport>(*BT_capturedstackasync, Out.str(), N);
205  if (Range.isValid())
206  Report->addRange(Range);
207  C.emitReport(std::move(Report));
208  }
209 }
210 
211 void StackAddrEscapeChecker::checkReturnedBlockCaptures(
212  const BlockDataRegion &B, CheckerContext &C) const {
213  for (const MemRegion *Region : getCapturedStackRegions(B, C)) {
214  if (isArcManagedBlock(Region, C) || isNotInCurrentFrame(Region, C))
215  continue;
216  ExplodedNode *N = C.generateNonFatalErrorNode();
217  if (!N)
218  continue;
219  if (!BT_capturedstackret)
220  BT_capturedstackret = llvm::make_unique<BuiltinBug>(
221  this, "Address of stack-allocated memory is captured");
222  SmallString<128> Buf;
223  llvm::raw_svector_ostream Out(Buf);
224  SourceRange Range = genName(Out, Region, C.getASTContext());
225  Out << " is captured by a returned block";
226  auto Report =
227  llvm::make_unique<BugReport>(*BT_capturedstackret, Out.str(), N);
228  if (Range.isValid())
229  Report->addRange(Range);
230  C.emitReport(std::move(Report));
231  }
232 }
233 
234 void StackAddrEscapeChecker::checkPreCall(const CallEvent &Call,
235  CheckerContext &C) const {
236  if (!ChecksEnabled[CK_StackAddrAsyncEscapeChecker])
237  return;
238  if (!Call.isGlobalCFunction("dispatch_after") &&
239  !Call.isGlobalCFunction("dispatch_async"))
240  return;
241  for (unsigned Idx = 0, NumArgs = Call.getNumArgs(); Idx < NumArgs; ++Idx) {
242  if (const BlockDataRegion *B = dyn_cast_or_null<BlockDataRegion>(
243  Call.getArgSVal(Idx).getAsRegion()))
244  checkAsyncExecutedBlockCaptures(*B, C);
245  }
246 }
247 
248 void StackAddrEscapeChecker::checkPreStmt(const ReturnStmt *RS,
249  CheckerContext &C) const {
250  if (!ChecksEnabled[CK_StackAddrEscapeChecker])
251  return;
252 
253  const Expr *RetE = RS->getRetValue();
254  if (!RetE)
255  return;
256  RetE = RetE->IgnoreParens();
257 
258  SVal V = C.getSVal(RetE);
259  const MemRegion *R = V.getAsRegion();
260  if (!R)
261  return;
262 
263  if (const BlockDataRegion *B = dyn_cast<BlockDataRegion>(R))
264  checkReturnedBlockCaptures(*B, C);
265 
266  if (!isa<StackSpaceRegion>(R->getMemorySpace()) ||
267  isNotInCurrentFrame(R, C) || isArcManagedBlock(R, C))
268  return;
269 
270  // Returning a record by value is fine. (In this case, the returned
271  // expression will be a copy-constructor, possibly wrapped in an
272  // ExprWithCleanups node.)
273  if (const ExprWithCleanups *Cleanup = dyn_cast<ExprWithCleanups>(RetE))
274  RetE = Cleanup->getSubExpr();
275  if (isa<CXXConstructExpr>(RetE) && RetE->getType()->isRecordType())
276  return;
277 
278  // The CK_CopyAndAutoreleaseBlockObject cast causes the block to be copied
279  // so the stack address is not escaping here.
280  if (auto *ICE = dyn_cast<ImplicitCastExpr>(RetE)) {
281  if (isa<BlockDataRegion>(R) &&
282  ICE->getCastKind() == CK_CopyAndAutoreleaseBlockObject) {
283  return;
284  }
285  }
286 
287  EmitStackError(C, R, RetE);
288 }
289 
290 void StackAddrEscapeChecker::checkEndFunction(const ReturnStmt *RS,
291  CheckerContext &Ctx) const {
292  if (!ChecksEnabled[CK_StackAddrEscapeChecker])
293  return;
294 
295  ProgramStateRef State = Ctx.getState();
296 
297  // Iterate over all bindings to global variables and see if it contains
298  // a memory region in the stack space.
299  class CallBack : public StoreManager::BindingsHandler {
300  private:
301  CheckerContext &Ctx;
302  const StackFrameContext *CurSFC;
303 
304  public:
306 
307  CallBack(CheckerContext &CC) : Ctx(CC), CurSFC(CC.getStackFrame()) {}
308 
309  bool HandleBinding(StoreManager &SMgr, Store S, const MemRegion *Region,
310  SVal Val) override {
311 
312  if (!isa<GlobalsSpaceRegion>(Region->getMemorySpace()))
313  return true;
314  const MemRegion *VR = Val.getAsRegion();
315  if (VR && isa<StackSpaceRegion>(VR->getMemorySpace()) &&
316  !isArcManagedBlock(VR, Ctx) && !isNotInCurrentFrame(VR, Ctx))
317  V.emplace_back(Region, VR);
318  return true;
319  }
320  };
321 
322  CallBack Cb(Ctx);
323  State->getStateManager().getStoreManager().iterBindings(State->getStore(),
324  Cb);
325 
326  if (Cb.V.empty())
327  return;
328 
329  // Generate an error node.
330  ExplodedNode *N = Ctx.generateNonFatalErrorNode(State);
331  if (!N)
332  return;
333 
334  if (!BT_stackleak)
335  BT_stackleak = llvm::make_unique<BuiltinBug>(
336  this, "Stack address stored into global variable",
337  "Stack address was saved into a global variable. "
338  "This is dangerous because the address will become "
339  "invalid after returning from the function");
340 
341  for (const auto &P : Cb.V) {
342  // Generate a report for this bug.
343  SmallString<128> Buf;
344  llvm::raw_svector_ostream Out(Buf);
345  SourceRange Range = genName(Out, P.second, Ctx.getASTContext());
346  Out << " is still referred to by the ";
347  if (isa<StaticGlobalSpaceRegion>(P.first->getMemorySpace()))
348  Out << "static";
349  else
350  Out << "global";
351  Out << " variable '";
352  const VarRegion *VR = cast<VarRegion>(P.first->getBaseRegion());
353  Out << *VR->getDecl()
354  << "' upon returning to the caller. This will be a dangling reference";
355  auto Report = llvm::make_unique<BugReport>(*BT_stackleak, Out.str(), N);
356  if (Range.isValid())
357  Report->addRange(Range);
358 
359  Ctx.emitReport(std::move(Report));
360  }
361 }
362 
363 #define REGISTER_CHECKER(name) \
364  void ento::register##name(CheckerManager &Mgr) { \
365  StackAddrEscapeChecker *Chk = \
366  Mgr.registerChecker<StackAddrEscapeChecker>(); \
367  Chk->ChecksEnabled[StackAddrEscapeChecker::CK_##name] = true; \
368  }
369 
370 REGISTER_CHECKER(StackAddrEscapeChecker)
371 REGISTER_CHECKER(StackAddrAsyncEscapeChecker)
A (possibly-)qualified type.
Definition: Type.h:642
void print(raw_ostream &OS, const PrintingPolicy &Policy, const Twine &PlaceHolder=Twine(), unsigned Indentation=0) const
Definition: Type.h:985
Defines the SourceManager interface.
bool isRecordType() const
Definition: Type.h:6250
SourceLocation getBeginLoc() const LLVM_READONLY
Definition: DeclBase.h:410
IntrusiveRefCntPtr< const ProgramState > ProgramStateRef
StringRef P
CompoundLiteralExpr - [C99 6.5.2.5].
Definition: Expr.h:2717
const void * Store
Store - This opaque type encapsulates an immutable mapping from locations to values.
Definition: StoreRef.h:28
Represents an expression – generally a full-expression – that introduces cleanups to be run at the ...
Definition: ExprCXX.h:3033
Defines the clang::Expr interface and subclasses for C++ expressions.
SourceLocation getBeginLoc() const LLVM_READONLY
Definition: Expr.h:2760
One of these records is kept for each identifier that is lexed.
Holds long-lived AST nodes (such as types and decls) that can be referred to throughout the semantic ...
Definition: ASTContext.h:154
LineState State
SourceLocation getBeginLoc() const LLVM_READONLY
Definition: Stmt.cpp:280
const Expr * getRetValue() const
Definition: Stmt.cpp:937
IdentifierTable & Idents
Definition: ASTContext.h:565
const clang::PrintingPolicy & getPrintingPolicy() const
Definition: ASTContext.h:663
Pepresents a block literal declaration, which is like an unnamed FunctionDecl.
Definition: Decl.h:3835
This represents one expression.
Definition: Expr.h:105
QualType getType() const
Definition: Expr.h:127
ReturnStmt - This represents a return, optionally of an expression: return; return 4;...
Definition: Stmt.h:1444
unsigned getExpansionLineNumber(SourceLocation Loc, bool *Invalid=nullptr) const
const SourceManager & SM
Definition: Format.cpp:1472
Encodes a location in the source.
IdentifierInfo & get(StringRef Name)
Return the identifier token info for the specified named identifier.
ASTContext & getASTContext() const LLVM_READONLY
Definition: DeclBase.cpp:376
#define REGISTER_CHECKER(name)
Dataflow Directional Tag Classes.
ArrayRef< Capture > captures() const
Definition: Decl.h:3954
SourceManager & getSourceManager()
Definition: ASTContext.h:671
bool isValid() const
SourceRange getSourceRange() const override LLVM_READONLY
Source range that this declaration covers.
Definition: Decl.cpp:4276
SourceRange getSourceRange() const LLVM_READONLY
SourceLocation tokens are not useful in isolation - they are low level value objects created/interpre...
Definition: Stmt.cpp:268
A trivial tuple used to represent a source range.
This class handles loading and caching of source files into memory.
Expr * IgnoreParens() LLVM_READONLY
IgnoreParens - Ignore parentheses.
Definition: Expr.cpp:2513