bugprone-easily-swappable-parameters

Finds function definitions where parameters of convertible types follow each other directly, making call sites prone to calling the function with swapped (or badly ordered) arguments.

void drawPoint(int X, int Y) { /* ... */ }
FILE *open(const char *Dir, const char *Name, Flags Mode) { /* ... */ }

A potential call like drawPoint(-2, 5) or openPath("a.txt", "tmp", Read) is perfectly legal from the language’s perspective, but might not be what the developer of the function intended.

More elaborate and type-safe constructs, such as opaque typedefs or strong types should be used instead, to prevent a mistaken order of arguments.

struct Coord2D { int X; int Y; };
void drawPoint(const Coord2D Pos) { /* ... */ }

FILE *open(const Path &Dir, const Filename &Name, Flags Mode) { /* ... */ }

Due to the potentially elaborate refactoring and API-breaking that is necessary to strengthen the type safety of a project, no automatic fix-its are offered.

Options

Extension/relaxation options

Relaxation (or extension) options can be used to broaden the scope of the analysis and fine-tune the enabling of more mixes between types. Some mixes may depend on coding style or preference specific to a project, however, it should be noted that enabling all of these relaxations model the way of mixing at call sites the most. These options are expected to make the check report for more functions, and report longer mixable ranges.

QualifiersMix

Whether to consider parameters of some cvr-qualified T and a differently cvr-qualified T (i.e. T and const T, const T and volatile T, etc.) mixable between one another. If false, the check will consider differently qualified types unmixable. True turns the warnings on. Defaults to false.

The following example produces a diagnostic only if QualifiersMix is enabled:

void *memcpy(const void *Destination, void *Source, std::size_t N) { /* ... */ }
ModelImplicitConversions

Whether to consider parameters of type T and U mixable if there exists an implicit conversion from T to U and U to T. If false, the check will not consider implicitly convertible types for mixability. True turns warnings for implicit conversions on. Defaults to true.

The following examples produce a diagnostic only if ModelImplicitConversions is enabled:

void fun(int Int, double Double) { /* ... */ }
void compare(const char *CharBuf, std::string String) { /* ... */ }

Note

Changing the qualifiers of an expression’s type (e.g. from int to const int) is defined as an implicit conversion in the C++ Standard. However, the check separates this decision-making on the mixability of differently qualified types based on whether QualifiersMix was enabled.

For example, the following code snippet will only produce a diagnostic if both QualifiersMix and ModelImplicitConversions are enabled:

void fun2(int Int, const double Double) { /* ... */ }

Filtering options

Filtering options can be used to lessen the size of the diagnostics emitted by the checker, whether the aim is to ignore certain constructs or dampen the noisiness.

MinimumLength

The minimum length required from an adjacent parameter sequence to be diagnosed. Defaults to 2. Might be any positive integer greater or equal to 2. If 0 or 1 is given, the default value 2 will be used instead.

For example, if 3 is specified, the examples above will not be matched.

IgnoredParameterNames

The list of parameter names that should never be considered part of a swappable adjacent parameter sequence. The value is a ;-separated list of names. To ignore unnamed parameters, add “” to the list verbatim (not the empty string, but the two quotes, potentially escaped!). This option is case-sensitive!

By default, the following parameter names, and their Uppercase-initial variants are ignored: “” (unnamed parameters), iterator, begin, end, first, last, lhs, rhs.

IgnoredParameterTypeSuffixes

The list of parameter type name suffixes that should never be considered part of a swappable adjacent parameter sequence. Parameters which type, as written in the source code, end with an element of this option will be ignored. The value is a ;-separated list of names. This option is case-sensitive!

By default, the following, and their lowercase-initial variants are ignored: bool, It, Iterator, InputIt, ForwardIt, BidirIt, RandomIt, random_iterator, ReverseIt, reverse_iterator, reverse_const_iterator, RandomIt, random_iterator, ReverseIt, reverse_iterator, reverse_const_iterator, Const_Iterator, ConstIterator, const_reverse_iterator, ConstReverseIterator. In addition, _Bool (but not _bool) is also part of the default value.

SuppressParametersUsedTogether

Suppresses diagnostics about parameters that are used together or in a similar fashion inside the function’s body. Defaults to true. Specifying false will turn off the heuristics.

Currently, the following heuristics are implemented which will suppress the warning about the parameter pair involved:

  • The parameters are used in the same expression, e.g. f(a, b) or a < b.

  • The parameters are further passed to the same function to the same parameter of that function, of the same overload. e.g. f(a, 1) and f(b, 2) to some f(T, int).

    Note

    The check does not perform path-sensitive analysis, and as such, “same function” in this context means the same function declaration. If the same member function of a type on two distinct instances are called with the parameters, it will still be regarded as “same function”.

  • The same member field is accessed, or member method is called of the two parameters, e.g. a.foo() and b.foo().

  • Separate return statements return either of the parameters on different code paths.

NamePrefixSuffixSilenceDissimilarityTreshold

The number of characters two parameter names might be different on either the head or the tail end with the rest of the name the same so that the warning about the two parameters are silenced. Defaults to 1. Might be any positive integer. If 0, the filtering heuristic based on the parameters’ names is turned off.

This option can be used to silence warnings about parameters where the naming scheme indicates that the order of those parameters do not matter.

For example, the parameters LHS and RHS are 1-dissimilar suffixes of each other: L and R is the different character, while HS is the common suffix. Similarly, parameters text1, text2, text3 are 1-dissimilar prefixes of each other, with the numbers at the end being the dissimilar part. If the value is at least 1, such cases will not be reported.

Limitations

This check is designed to check function signatures!

The check does not investigate functions that are generated by the compiler in a context that is only determined from a call site. These cases include variadic functions, functions in C code that do not have an argument list, and C++ template instantiations. Most of these cases, which are otherwise swappable from a caller’s standpoint, have no way of getting “fixed” at the definition point. In the case of C++ templates, only primary template definitions and explicit specializations are matched and analyzed.

None of the following cases produce a diagnostic:

int printf(const char *Format, ...) { /* ... */ }
int someOldCFunction() { /* ... */ }

template <typename T, typename U>
int add(T X, U Y) { return X + Y };

void theseAreNotWarnedAbout() {
    printf("%d %d\n", 1, 2);   // Two ints passed, they could be swapped.
    someOldCFunction(1, 2, 3); // Similarly, multiple ints passed.

    add(1, 2); // Instantiates 'add<int, int>', but that's not a user-defined function.
}

Due to the limitation above, parameters which type are further dependent upon template instantiations to prove that they mix with another parameter’s is not diagnosed.

template <typename T>
struct Vector {
  typedef T element_type;
};

// Diagnosed: Explicit instantiation was done by the user, we can prove it
// is the same type.
void instantiated(int A, Vector<int>::element_type B) { /* ... */ }

// Diagnosed: The two parameter types are exactly the same.
template <typename T>
void exact(typename Vector<T>::element_type A,
           typename Vector<T>::element_type B) { /* ... */ }

// Skipped: The two parameters are both 'T' but we cannot prove this
// without actually instantiating.
template <typename T>
void falseNegative(T A, typename Vector<T>::element_type B) { /* ... */ }

In the context of implicit conversions (when ModelImplicitConversions is enabled), the modelling performed by the check warns if the parameters are swappable and the swapped order matches implicit conversions. It does not model whether there exists an unrelated third type from which both parameters can be given in a function call. This means that in the following example, even while strs() clearly carries the possibility to be called with swapped arguments (as long as the arguments are string literals), will not be warned about.

struct String {
    String(const char *Buf);
};

struct StringView {
    StringView(const char *Buf);
    operator const char *() const;
};

// Skipped: Directly swapping expressions of the two type cannot mix.
// (Note: StringView -> const char * -> String would be **two**
// user-defined conversions, which is disallowed by the language.)
void strs(String Str, StringView SV) { /* ... */ }

// Diagnosed: StringView implicitly converts to and from a buffer.
void cStr(StringView SV, const char *Buf() { /* ... */ }