Clang 3.5 documentation

LibTooling

«  Introduction to the Clang AST   ::   Contents   ::   LibFormat  »

LibTooling

LibTooling is a library to support writing standalone tools based on Clang. This document will provide a basic walkthrough of how to write a tool using LibTooling.

For the information on how to setup Clang Tooling for LLVM see How To Setup Clang Tooling For LLVM

Introduction

Tools built with LibTooling, like Clang Plugins, run FrontendActions over code.

In this tutorial, we’ll demonstrate the different ways of running Clang’s SyntaxOnlyAction, which runs a quick syntax check, over a bunch of code.

Parsing a code snippet in memory

If you ever wanted to run a FrontendAction over some sample code, for example to unit test parts of the Clang AST, runToolOnCode is what you looked for. Let me give you an example:

#include "clang/Tooling/Tooling.h"

TEST(runToolOnCode, CanSyntaxCheckCode) {
  // runToolOnCode returns whether the action was correctly run over the
  // given code.
  EXPECT_TRUE(runToolOnCode(new clang::SyntaxOnlyAction, "class X {};"));
}

Writing a standalone tool

Once you unit tested your FrontendAction to the point where it cannot possibly break, it’s time to create a standalone tool. For a standalone tool to run clang, it first needs to figure out what command line arguments to use for a specified file. To that end we create a CompilationDatabase. There are different ways to create a compilation database, and we need to support all of them depending on command-line options. There’s the CommonOptionsParser class that takes the responsibility to parse command-line parameters related to compilation databases and inputs, so that all tools share the implementation.

Parsing common tools options

CompilationDatabase can be read from a build directory or the command line. Using CommonOptionsParser allows for explicit specification of a compile command line, specification of build path using the -p command-line option, and automatic location of the compilation database using source files paths.

#include "clang/Tooling/CommonOptionsParser.h"
#include "llvm/Support/CommandLine.h"

using namespace clang::tooling;

// Apply a custom category to all command-line options so that they are the
// only ones displayed.
static llvm::cl::OptionCategory MyToolCategory("my-tool options");

int main(int argc, const char **argv) {
  // CommonOptionsParser constructor will parse arguments and create a
  // CompilationDatabase.  In case of error it will terminate the program.
  CommonOptionsParser OptionsParser(argc, argv, MyToolCategory);

  // Use OptionsParser.getCompilations() and OptionsParser.getSourcePathList()
  // to retrieve CompilationDatabase and the list of input file paths.
}

Creating and running a ClangTool

Once we have a CompilationDatabase, we can create a ClangTool and run our FrontendAction over some code. For example, to run the SyntaxOnlyAction over the files “a.cc” and “b.cc” one would write:

// A clang tool can run over a number of sources in the same process...
std::vector<std::string> Sources;
Sources.push_back("a.cc");
Sources.push_back("b.cc");

// We hand the CompilationDatabase we created and the sources to run over into
// the tool constructor.
ClangTool Tool(OptionsParser.getCompilations(), Sources);

// The ClangTool needs a new FrontendAction for each translation unit we run
// on.  Thus, it takes a FrontendActionFactory as parameter.  To create a
// FrontendActionFactory from a given FrontendAction type, we call
// newFrontendActionFactory<clang::SyntaxOnlyAction>().
int result = Tool.run(newFrontendActionFactory<clang::SyntaxOnlyAction>());

Putting it together — the first tool

Now we combine the two previous steps into our first real tool. A more advanced version of this example tool is also checked into the clang tree at tools/clang-check/ClangCheck.cpp.

// Declares clang::SyntaxOnlyAction.
#include "clang/Frontend/FrontendActions.h"
#include "clang/Tooling/CommonOptionsParser.h"
#include "clang/Tooling/Tooling.h"
// Declares llvm::cl::extrahelp.
#include "llvm/Support/CommandLine.h"

using namespace clang::tooling;
using namespace llvm;

// Apply a custom category to all command-line options so that they are the
// only ones displayed.
static cl::OptionCategory MyToolCategory("my-tool options");

// CommonOptionsParser declares HelpMessage with a description of the common
// command-line options related to the compilation database and input files.
// It's nice to have this help message in all tools.
static cl::extrahelp CommonHelp(CommonOptionsParser::HelpMessage);

// A help message for this specific tool can be added afterwards.
static cl::extrahelp MoreHelp("\nMore help text...");

int main(int argc, const char **argv) {
  CommonOptionsParser OptionsParser(argc, argv, MyToolCategory);
  ClangTool Tool(OptionsParser.getCompilations(),
                 OptionsParser.getSourcePathList());
  return Tool.run(newFrontendActionFactory<clang::SyntaxOnlyAction>());
}

Running the tool on some code

When you check out and build clang, clang-check is already built and available to you in bin/clang-check inside your build directory.

You can run clang-check on a file in the llvm repository by specifying all the needed parameters after a “--” separator:

$ cd /path/to/source/llvm
$ export BD=/path/to/build/llvm
$ $BD/bin/clang-check tools/clang/tools/clang-check/ClangCheck.cpp -- \
      clang++ -D__STDC_CONSTANT_MACROS -D__STDC_LIMIT_MACROS \
      -Itools/clang/include -I$BD/include -Iinclude \
      -Itools/clang/lib/Headers -c

As an alternative, you can also configure cmake to output a compile command database into its build directory:

# Alternatively to calling cmake, use ccmake, toggle to advanced mode and
# set the parameter CMAKE_EXPORT_COMPILE_COMMANDS from the UI.
$ cmake -DCMAKE_EXPORT_COMPILE_COMMANDS=ON .

This creates a file called compile_commands.json in the build directory. Now you can run clang-check over files in the project by specifying the build path as first argument and some source files as further positional arguments:

$ cd /path/to/source/llvm
$ export BD=/path/to/build/llvm
$ $BD/bin/clang-check -p $BD tools/clang/tools/clang-check/ClangCheck.cpp

Builtin includes

Clang tools need their builtin headers and search for them the same way Clang does. Thus, the default location to look for builtin headers is in a path $(dirname /path/to/tool)/../lib/clang/3.3/include relative to the tool binary. This works out-of-the-box for tools running from llvm’s toplevel binary directory after building clang-headers, or if the tool is running from the binary directory of a clang install next to the clang binary.

Tips: if your tool fails to find stddef.h or similar headers, call the tool with -v and look at the search paths it looks through.

Linking

For a list of libraries to link, look at one of the tools’ Makefiles (for example clang-check/Makefile).

«  Introduction to the Clang AST   ::   Contents   ::   LibFormat  »